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Phoenix Obsidian Designs

Ethnobotanical Survey of Forest Openings
within the Proposed Grassy Glade Prescribed Burn Area,
Rigdon Ranger District, Willamette National Forest

by Dr. Susan M. Gleason, Ph.D.
University of California, Riverside


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INTRODUCTIONECOTYPEMETHODOLOGY
RESULTSDISCUSSIONCONCLUSION
APPENDIX

 
 

Introduction

The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of ethnobotanically important plants within the forest openings of a proposed prescribed burn area in the Willamette National Forest.   These openings are characterized by high rock content, high erosion, and high winter - low summer extremes of soil moisture.   Such characteristics have been used elsewhere to define a unique ecotype, a lithosol meadow.   Ethnobotanical studies within other areas, such as the Upper Klamath River Canyon, have shown that such openings were important localizations of many ethnobotanically important resources.   The survey reported here suggests that the erosionally maintained forest openings sampled within the Grassy Glade locale show many similarities to the lithosol meadows found elsewhere and thus were probably important resource areas for the prehistoric occupants of this region as well.

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Ecotype Description

The Grassy Glade prescribed burn area is predominately a Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) climax vegetation community with Grand Fir (Abies grandis) beginning to come in below the heavy forest canopy.   There are also some elevational changes in the vegetation communities present within the total proposed burn area.   However, the forest openings which this study examines are located specifically within the Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) zone.   The openings support a high concentration of herbaceous vegetation with Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa) occurring either within or on the edges of the meadows.   Shrub vegetation is present as an ecotonal edge to these openings.   The openings are primarily maintained by the low soil content which hinders the establishment of deeply rooting species.   This characteristic is sustained by heavy erosion through slope wash and complex drainage patterning upon these high slope areas.   This is unlike lithosol meadows in Plateau or Great Basin contexts which are maintained by factors such as frost-thaw heaving or the youth of the soils.

The forest openings within the Grassy Glade locale were probably much larger in the past when they were under a different fire frequency regime.   The encroachment of the forest vegetation upon these meadow situations can be illustrated by comparing aerial photographs from 1946 and 1991.   How extensive they were under prehistoric conditions is very difficult to estimate, even though it is likely that they were much larger than even shown by the 1946 photograph.   The core of these openings is and will probably continue to be maintained by soil and geomorphic characteristics, but the resumption of a more frequent fire frequency would assist in at least stabilizing the situation.   Once the meadows are colonized by soil capturing species, such as trees and shrubs, the conditions which maintain these openings in the forest cease to operate effectively.

The species present within these forest openings are adapted to the high lithic content of the soil, the high winter - low summer moisture content of the soil, and high insolation.   These adaptations are particularly characteristic of geophytic plants (plants with the majority of their biomass located beneath the soil), such as those within the Liliaceae and Apiaceae families.   The high erosion rate which maintains these openings causes them to be under a constant disturbance of a non-anthropogenic nature.   Thus plants which like disturbance, especially non-natives, are also commonly found with these lithosol meadows.   There are ecotonal variations within these meadows caused by differences in soil, moisture and shade situations.   This presents a complex micro-biogeographical situation beyond the standard three lithosol meadow ecotones of herbaceous core, chaparral edge, and surrounding forest.

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Methodology

The survey began with an examination of aerial photographs to identify forest openings within the proposed prescribed burn area (see Map).   Once these openings were identified, they were visited to determine survey potential.   One of the openings (Meadow #3) was eliminated from the survey due to the extreme slope involved in gaining access.   Meadows #1 and #2 were selected as areas to be definitely sampled due to their size and more classic lithosol meadow appearance.   The other two meadows (#4 and #5) were selected to be representative of the numerous small forest openings within the section.   However, it was soon realized that Meadow #4 was another representation of the intermediate size of lithosol meadow.   Several other meadows were at least cursorily examined, if not sampled, to get a better idea of the composition of the smallest type of opening (see the plant lists reported in Appendix 1).

Individual meadows were then examined to build up lists of plants present within and immediately surrounding the meadow.   Not all of the plants were identified due to time constraints, but the most common plants were identified, as well as the majority of the ethnobotanically important plants.   Specimens were collected to verify identifications as well as to help identify unknowns.   Only grasses known to the sampler were identified, but notes were taken as to the number of different species present.

Sampling of these meadows was accomplished by placing a 1x1 m plastic grid at 10 m intervals along a line across the meadow.   The side of the line sampled at each interval was selected by tossing a coin.   Placement of the line was across the longest dimension with the exact placement chosen by randomly tossing a rock over the shoulder.   Units were occasionally placed at right angles to this line based upon visual recognition of small ecotonal situations.   However, these units were restrained to 10 m intervals from the main line.   Once the grid was placed on the ground, with the north corner at the 10 m mark, the plants present within the boundaries were identified.   The ethnobotanically important plants were noted and numbers present counted.   Most of the other plants present were counted as well, except for grasses.   The number of grids placed within a meadow was based upon the size of the meadow and upon time constraints (25 squares in Meadow #1; 11 squares in Meadow #2; 9 squares in Meadow #4; and 5 squares in Meadow #5).

To determine the overall plant type percentages within the lithosol meadows, presence/absence data was used.   The plants were grouped as to economically useful species, non-economically useful species, grasses, and moss.   Only the plants used for food or fiber were counted as economic in this grouping.   Medicinal plants and plants used only occasionally for food or other purposes were counted here as non-economic.   It should be noted, however, that almost every native plant had some place within the cultures of the people within their biogeographical range, and thus could be counted as economic.   See Appendix 1 for the breakdown used in this study for the plants found within these meadows.   The number of units with the economic or non-economic plant over the total number of units sampled from the meadow is thus the basis of the percentages shown in the pie graphs.   A slightly different procedure was used for the determination of the percentages of economic plants.   The counts of the plants were used for these pie charts, so that the number of a particular economic plant over the total number of individual economic plants was the calculation involved.   For instance, to determine the percentage of Perideridia oregana in Meadow 1, its count of 173 plants from the 25 squares was divided by the total of 1416 economic plants from those same 25 squares.   The counts of the ethnobotanically important plants were then also used to determine their density per m2.   These numbers are given in the next section, along with a descriptive interpretation for the individual meadows.

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Results and Interpretation

The four meadows sampled within the Grassy Glade locale provide good illustrations of the ecological range of variability of the erosionally maintained lithosol meadow.   They also collectively show the ethnobotanical importance of such ecological situations by the high percentage of economic plants which they support.

Meadow #1, Grassy Glade, is closest in expression to the classic lithosol meadow appearance.   There has been some encroachment upon this meadow, based on aerial photograph analysis, but the core has been well maintained.   The percentages of non-economic and economic plants are about equivalent, with non-economic plants slightly more common.   This situation is typical for lithosol meadows which are maintained by heavy disturbance.   Many of the non-economic plants found in the meadow are non-natives, which prosper within the disturbed open environment (see the plant list for this meadow; Appendix 1).   The less disturbed the meadow is, the higher the percentage of economic plants generally will be.   The percentage of grasses is another indication of the high disturbance regime in operation within Grassy Glade.

Characteristic economically useful lithosol meadow plants are found in abundance within this meadow - Yampah (Perideridia), Brodiaea, Onion (Allium), Biscuitroot (Lomatium), and Tarweed (Madia).   The high but equivalent percentages of both Perideridia and Brodiaea, which is shown in the pie chart below, are very similar to those noted by the author in lithosol meadows found near the Upper Klamath River Canyon.   The low densities of both of these plants, given in the chart below, is probably due to the high competition offered by non-native plants such as Cheatgrass (Bromus spp.).   Meadow #1 also exhibits the well-defined three basic lithosol meadow ecotones of herbaceous core, shrub edge, and surrounding forest.   The shrub edge is dominated by Deerbrush (Ceanothus integerrimus) and Oceanspray (Holodiscus discolor).   Meanwhile, the surrounding forest edge consists of an open stand of Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), Incense Cedar (Calocedrus decurrens), and Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa).

Meadow #1
Percentages of Economic Plants
Madia29.31%
Perideridia12.22%
Allium27.40%
Lomatium8.61%
Brodiaea13.49%
Dichlostemma0.35%
Triteleia8.61%
Meadow #1
Densities of Economic Plants per m2
Allium spp.15.5
Brodiaea coronaria7.6
Dichlostemma congestum0.2
Lomatium utriculatum4.9
Madia spp.16.6
Perideridia oregana6.9
Triteleia hyacinthina4.9

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Meadow #2 is an example of a lithosol meadow upon which heavy encroachment has occurred but has not completely stifled the appearance of certain characteristic lithosol meadow attributes.   The percentage of economic to non-economic plants within this meadow, as shown in the pie chart below, is similar to that of the other meadows which were sampled.   The grass percentage is lower in this meadow, possibly due to the erosional stabilization caused by forest encroachment, and the consequent lessening of disturbance.   This hypothesis is also supported by the presence of a higher percentage and diversity of economic plants.   The selection of economic plants found in this meadow provides a further divergence from the classic model as shown by Meadow #1.   The presence of lower rock, higher moisture, but still high insolation results in the presence of such species as Dogbane (Apocynum) and Milkweed (Asclepias) and the addition of Pussy Ears (Calochortus) and Ookow (Dichlostemma) to the list of economic plants found within the sampling squares.   It is interesting to note that this meadow has a higher percentage of fiber to food plants than any of the other meadows sampled.   Another item of interest is the reduction of the percentage of Perideridia and Brodiaea in the economic plants� pie chart, compare this with Meadow #1's pie chart.   There is a major drainage channel down the center of this meadow with Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa) stabilizing the soil in the vicinity.   Therefore, the biogeography of this meadow has two core areas of lithosol vegetation.   The smaller, and more open, core area is dominated by Perideridia and Brodiaea whereas the other is dominated by Dichlostemma and Calochortus.   The fact that the meadow is only just beginning to be seriously impacted by encroachment allows for the high counts of Dichlostemma within the shaded and moist environment of the second core.   This complex ecological situation allows for the high botanical diversity exhibited by this meadow.

Meadow #2
Overall Plant Type Percentages
Economic Plants45.25%
Grass8.33%
Moss3.57%
Non-Economic Plants42.85%
Meadow #2
Percentages of Economic Plants
Madia29.57%
Lomatium5.18%
Calochortus0.01%
Perideridia3.41%
Apocynum2.88%
Dichlostemma58.94%
Brodiaea, Pteridium, Asclepias, Iris0.01%
Meadow #2
Densities of Economic Plants per m2
Apocynum androsaemifolium4.0
Asclepias cordifolia0.3
Brodiaea coronaria0.2
Calochortus tolmiei0.6
Dichlostemma congestum81.7
Iris chrysophylla0.2
Lomatium utriculatum7.2
Madia spp.41.0
Perideridia oregana4.7
Pteridium aquilinum0.4

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Meadow #4 is another intermediary erosional lithosol meadow consisting of a narrow vegetation zone situated along a drainage course.   This is a case in which the erosional maintenance factor is very apparent.   The ecotonal divisions within this meadow are also very obvious with Calochortus and Dichlostemma being found nearest the forest edge in a situation with higher soil, moisture, and shade; White Brodiaea (Triteleia) is found in the next ecotone with slightly less of each of these conditions; and then finally Perideridia and Brodiaea are found in the areas with highest erosion and the least amount of soil, moisture, and shade.   The variation in soil stabilization within the meadow is reflected in the overall plant type percentages with the grass percentage being moderate and the percentages of non-economic plants and economic plants, shown in the pie chart below, being close to each other.   The slightly higher percentage of economic plants is a reflection of the high species variability found within this meadow, and is well illustrated within the economic plant pie chart below.   Density counts for the major geophytes are all high and close in number.   These counts are more in line with density counts from classic lithosol meadows, excluding Pussy ears (Calochortus tolmiei) which is not a typical lithosol meadow geophyte.   The high numbers of this non-lithosol geophyte is an indication of the intermediary nature of the meadow, with the encroachment of the surrounding forest vegetation providing the shade it requires.

Meadow #4
Overall Plant Type Percentages
Economic Plants47.56%
Grass11.56%
Moss3.26%
Juncus1.63%
Non-Economic Plants36.00%
Meadow #4
Percentages of
Economic Plants
Triteleia37.26%
Dichlostemma15.08%
Fragaria2.26%
Calochortus9.75%
Trientalis1.78%
Perideridia7.43%
Madia10.66%
Lomatium9.64%
Brodiaea6.14%
Meadow #4
Densities of Economic Plants per m2
Brodiaea coronaria12.7
Calochortus tolmiei20.1
Dichlostemma congestum3.1
Fragaria virginiana4.6
Lomatium utriculatum19.9
Madia spp.22.0
Perideridia oregana15.3
Trientalis latifolia3.7
Triteleia hyacinthina76.9

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The rest of the forest openings within the project area are small and were probably much larger in the past, as suggested by historical aerial photograph analysis.   Such tiny openings may have been much commoner in a thinner forest cover situation, where a single tree fall could make a significant opening.   The higher fire frequency would have supported and maintained such openings.   The current smaller forest openings have Pinus ponderosa both on their edges and within them.   These trees can support themselves on thinner and drier soils than the other available coniferous species.   Such plants trap soil around their roots, building up the soils and ending the erosional conditions which maintain these lithosol meadows.   In this way, these small openings in the forest are closing and the canopy is becoming more and more continuous within the Grassy Glade prescribed burn area.

The small forest openings in the Grass Glade locale maintain a herbaceous vegetation of Calochortus, Dichlostemma, Allium, and Triteleia.   These are species which are common to the more marginal lithosol situations.   The classic lithosol plants, Perideridia and Brodiaea, are not generally found within these situations except as isolates.   One such meadow, Meadow #5, was sampled to give an idea of the composition of these small forest openings.   Other meadows were given a quick examination, resulting in the plant lists reported in Appendix 1.

Meadow #5 has a high percentage of economically useful plants, an indication of the higher soil stability which results from forest encroachment.   However, due to the size of the meadow, the amount available of any one of these species is fairly low.   The meadow also exhibits a strong moss component, which indicates the higher year-round soil moisture content and the lower insolation which this meadow receives.   The lower variability in economic plants is a reflection of the small size of the meadow and the more mesic environment which reduces the number of true lithosol species which can flourish here.   The high density of Dichlostemma and Allium is another reflection of the marginal lithosol environment inherent in such a small opening in the forest.

Meadow #5
Overall Plant Type Percentages
Economic Plants45.15%
Grass16.13%
Moss6.45%
Non-Economic Plants32.28%
Meadow #5
Percentages of
Economic Plants
Madia43.92%
Calochortus2.43%
Asclepias0.54%
Dichlostemma22.97%
Allium30.14%
Meadow #5
Densities of Economic Plants per m2
Allium spp.44.6
Asclepias cordifolia0.8
Calochortus tolmiei3.8
Dichlostemma congestum34.0
Madia spp.65.0

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Discussion

Lithosol meadows have been important to native peoples throughout time due to their unique situation of providing high localized occurrences of geophytic plants.   Due to the specialized requirements of the ecology of lithosol meadows, the plants which flourish in these situations produce large storage organs which can be harvested profitably by the native peoples nearby.   The extensive lithosol meadows which make up the terrain of the Plateau and Northern Great Basin provided the basis for the root economy of the native peoples living in these areas.   Only recently has the importance of the smaller lithosol meadows located within the forested regions of the Cascades and Sierras begun to be recognized.   They provided important supplements to diets predominated by either the acorn or the salmon.   In other situations, they may have produced the staple of the diet with the acorn or salmon providing the supplements instead.   The unique ecological situation of each group determined the weight placed upon these resources within a mixed economy.

The overall vegetational situation within the Grassy Glade locale indicates that the classic lithosol situation would not be common, even under a more frequent fire regime.   Only Meadow #1 would have definitely been of the classic type and was probably more productive in the past when the non-natives would not have competed with the classic lithosol meadow species for resources within the meadow.   Here the important economic species are found within the genuses of Perideridia, Brodiaea, Lomatium, Triteleia, Madia and Allium.   Not all of the species which represent these genuses are of equal importance and some important genera are not exhibited by a useful species.   For example, there is more than one Madia species present within the Grassy Glade lithosol meadows.   The most common is Madia minima which was probably not utilized due to the extremely small seeds involved.   Therefore, the numbers and percentages of this genus may overestimate its economic position.   However, a more frequent fire regime, as well as the use of fire for harvest and maintenance, would select for the more economically useful species.   The potential for an important seed crop was therefore present within this meadow.   Of the geophytic plants present, Allium species in general have not been stressed as an important resource by any group, even though they can be extremely productive.   This low importance may have to do with both processing costs and the toxic potential in overconsumption.   The Lomatium which is found within this meadow is one of the minor biscuitroots, with a not very substantial tuber.   Perideridia and Brodiaea would have been the most important geophytic plants found within this meadow, and other such meadows that might have been in this locale prehistorically.   These plants would have been of equally high importance, as can be seen by their equivalent numbers and percentages.   Both of these genera provide many species which have been used and depended upon by numerous groups throughout the western United States.   Triteleia was classified as a Brodiaea until recently and thus would fall under most considerations of the importance of Brodiaea in general.

Meadow #2 and #4 as intermediary lithosol meadows may provide a better idea of the prehistoric biogeography, which might have been an open forest incorporating many small openings maintained by a frequent fire regime.   These intermediary type lithosol meadows have greater diversity and higher densities of economically important species.   The large edge zones, which support Calochortus and Dichlostemma, show especially great productivity.   Lomatium likewise maintains itself well within these intermediary situations.   Meanwhile, Perideridia and Brodiaea continue to flourish in the core open areas of these meadows.

Meadow #5 illustrates the closing of a lithosol meadow and a warning of what might happen to these other meadows.   There is still good productivity of Calochortus and Dichlostemma, as well as the low importance Allium, but with substantially less areal extent.   The overall diversity of economic plants available within such smaller openings goes down dramatically, and even Lomatium can not be found.   As the openings constrict further, both diversity and productivity decline in pace.

If the productivity of the intermediary lithosol meadows is reflective of the many meadows shown on the 1946 photograph, then the geophytic resources available in the Grassy Glade area must have been substantial.   No specific genus seems to dominate in terms of availability or productivity, thus no specific one can be stated as being the primary staple geophyte within the diet of the people utilizing these meadows.   If the meadows were kept more open through burning, then Brodiaea and Perideridia may have dominated.   They do seem to be the preferred economic species in such situations elsewhere.   If the meadows were more like the intermediary meadows, then Calochortus and Dichlostemma may have dominated.   In which case, the preference for Calochortus, with its larger bulb, might have dominated.   The Lomatium which is found here, utriculatum, is a minor biscuitroot with a small slender tuber.   Its importance may have been greater in this locale than elsewhere due to its occurrence in substantial numbers in both the classic and intermediary expressions of the lithosol meadow.   However, the return rate due to its smaller tuber would have been prohibitive to wide-scale utilization.

Utilization of these lithosol meadows would have occurred at different times of the year and for different purposes.   The geophytic food resources would have been available from early in the year, with Perideridia being the first harvested in early April and May before it flowered.   The Allium spp. would have been next harvested as they began to bloom a little later in May.   The last geophyte to be harvested would have been Brodiaea as it blooms later in June.   Once the soil dries out in July, these meadows could not have been dug until the fall when they were again available in September and October.   The geophytes were dug then if needed to bolster winter stores.   The choice to dig in fall would thus be dependent on the productivity of other more important resources such as camas, fish, and acorns.   Other economic resources in the meadow would also be harvested in fall, such as the Apocynum androsaemifolium which provides a source of fiber from its dried stems.   However, each of the fiber plants found in these meadows are not the highest quality species for fiber amongst the potentially available species.

The wood of Philadelphia lewisii and Holodiscus discolor was used for arrows and would have been harvested either in fall or early spring.   Meanwhile the foliage needed from some of the plants for food or medicine would have been gathered in early spring.   Therefore, only two times during the year were these meadows potentially not used - high summer and winter.

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Conclusion

The forest openings found within the Grassy Glade prescribed burn area support a high percentage of potentially ethnobotanically important plants.   This fact, and many factors of these openings� biogeography and geomorphology, equate these openings with lithosol meadows found in other areas.   Only one of the meadows is a classic expression of a lithosol meadow, but this might have to do with the changed fire frequency in the area.   Most of the meadows show the impact of forest encroachment.   This encroachment changes the composition of the plants found within the meadow as the environment changes in terms of insolation and soil morphology.   It does appear, however, that prehistorically these meadows would have provided an important reserve of geophytic food sources.   Whether or not they were of more or equal importance to other available resources within the area should be the topic for further study.   These meadows should also be monitored to ensure that encroachment does not endanger the expression of the lithosol meadow ecotype in this area.

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Glassy Glade Report - Appendix

MEADOW #1

Economic Plants [food and fiber plants]
Blue Elderberry - Sambucus mexicana [berries - food; wood - flutes, etc.]
Tarweed - Madia sp. [seeds - food]
Blackcap Raspberry - Rubus leucodermis [berries - food]
Wild Strawberry - Fragaria virginiana [berries - food]
Pussy Ears - Calochortus tolmiei [bulbs - food]
Ookow - Dichlostemma congestum [bulbs - food]
Chokecherry - Prunus virginiana [fruit - food]
Gooseberry - Ribes cereum [fruit - food]
Yampah - Perideridia oregana [roots - food]
Harvest Brodiaea - Brodiaea coronaria [bulbs - food]
Oregon Grape - Berberis aquifolium var. aquifolium [fruit - food]
Tall Oregon Grape - Berberis nervosa [fruit - food]
Serviceberry - Amelanchier alnifolia var. semiintegrifolia [fruit - food]
Western Starflower - Trientalis latifolia [root - food]
Dogbane - Apocynum androsaemifolium [stems - fiber]
Baldhip Rose - Rosa gymnocarpa [hips - medicine/food]
Miner�s Lettuce - Claytonia parviflora [foliage - food]
Milkweed - Asclepias cordifolia [stems - fiber]
Biscuitroot - Lomatium utriculatum [root - food]
White Brodiaea - Triteleia hyacinthina [bulb - food]
Onion - Allium amplectens [bulb - food]
Onion - Allium sp. [bulb - food]
Non-economic Plants
Small-headed Clover - Trifolium microcephalum [food? - counted as non-economic]
Clover - Trifolium willdenovii [food? - counted as non-economic]
Yarrow - Achillea millefolium [foliage - medicine]
Oceanspray - Holodiscus discolor [wood - digging sticks and arrows]
Self-heal - Prunella vulgaris var. lanceolata [foliage - medicine]
Mock Orange - Philadelphus lewisii [wood - arrows]
Bluefield Gila - Gila capitata ssp. capitata
Phacelia heterophylla ssp. virgata
Tarweed - Madia minima
Tarweed - Madia sp.
Clarkia amoena ssp. huntiana
Clarkia sp.
Cheatgrass - Bromus tectorum [non-native grass]
Small-flowered Lotus - Lotus micranthus
Salsify - Tragopogon dubius [non-native, economic - roots for food]
Himalayan Blackberry - Rubus discolor [non-native, economic - berries for food]
Deerbrush - Ceanothus integerrimus [seeds - starvation food]
Dogtail - Cynosurus echinatus [non-native grass]
Snowberry - Symphoricarpos albus
Poison Oak - Toxicodendron diversiloba
Yellow Monkeyflower - Mimulus guttatus
Sword Fern - Polystichum lonchitis [starvation food]
Wild Buckwheat - Eriogonum compositum
Sedum sp.
Lactuca serriola [non-native]
Yellow Owl�s Clover - Orthocarpus luteus
Juncus sp.
Bedstraw - Galium aparine
Bedstraw - Galium sp.
Lathyrus lanszwertii var. lanszwertii
Buttercup - Ranunculus californicus
Klamath Weed - Hypericum perforatum [non-native, economic - foliage for medicine]
Madrone - Arbutus menziesii [starvation food]
Brassicaceae sp.
Fiddleneck - Cryptantha sp.
Sea blush - Plectritis brachystemon
Trees
Ponderosa Pine - Pinus ponderosa
Incense Cedar - Calocedrus decurrens
Douglas Fir - Pseudotsuga menziesii
Grand Fir - Abies grandis

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MEADOW #2

Economic Plants [food and fiber plants]
Wild Strawberry - Fragaria virginiana [fruit - food]
Pussy Ears - Calochortus tolmiei [bulbs - food]
Baldhip Rose - Rosa gymnocarpa [hips - food/medicine]
Iris chrysophylla [leaves - fiber]
Bracken Fern - Pteridium aquilinum [foliage - food]
Ookow - Dichlostemma congestum [bulbs - food]
Western Starflower - Trientalis latifolia [roots - food]
Oregon Grape - Berberis aquifolium var. aquifolium [fruit - food]
Biscuitroot - Lomatium utriculatum [roots - food]
Yampah - Perideridia oregana [roots - food]
Miner�s Lettuce - Claytonia parviflora [foliage - food]
Milkweed - Asclepias cordifolia [stems - fiber]
Harvest Brodiaea - Brodiaea coronaria [bulbs - food]
Tarweed - Madia sp. [seeds - food]
Tall Oregon Grape - Berberis nervosa [fruit - food]
Gooseberry - Ribes sp. [fruit - food]
Gooseberry - Ribes cereum [fruit - food]
Dogbane - Apocynum androsaemifolium [stems - fiber]
Serviceberry - Amelanchier alnifolia var. semiintegrifolia [fruit - food]
Non-economic Plants
Self-heal - Prunella vulgaris var. lanceolata [foliage - medicine]
Clover - Trifolium willdenovii [food? - counted as non-economic]
Small-headed Clover - Trifolium microcephalum [food? - counted as non-economic]
Sanicula graveolens [foliage - medicine]
Oceanspray - Holodiscus discolor [wood - digging sticks and arrows]
Yarrow - Achillea millefolium [foliage - medicine]
Bedstraw - Galium aparine
Snowberry - Symphoricarpos alba
Sword Fern - Polystichum lonchitis [starvation food]
Small-flowered Lotus - Lotus micranthus
Sweet Cicely - Osmorhiza purpurea
Juncus sp.
Sedum sp.
Bluefield Gila - Gila capitata ssp. capitata
Spring-beauty - Claytonia rubra ssp. rubra
Tarweed - Madia minima
Yellow Monkeyflower - Mimulus guttatus
Deerbrush - Ceanothus integerrimus [seeds - starvation food]
Himalayan Blackberry - Rubus discolor [non-native, economic - fruit for food]
Yellow Owl�s Clover - Orthocarpus luteus
Clarkia amoena ssp. huntiana
Bedstraw - Galium sp.
Clarkia sp.
Alectoria sp.
Bryonia sp.
Sea Blush - Plectritis brachystemon
Fiddleneck - Crypthantha sp.
Trees
Douglas Fir - Pseudotsuga menziesii
Ponderosa Pine - Pinus ponderosa
Grand Fir - Abies grandis
Incense Cedar - Calocedrus decurrens

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MEADOW #4

Economic Plants
Pussy Ears - Calochortus tolmiei [bulbs - food]
Ookow - Dichlostemma congestum [bulbs - food]
Oregon Grape - Berberis aquifolium ssp. aquifolium[fruit - food]
Western Starflower - Trientalis latifolia [roots - food]
Wild Strawberry - Fragaria virginiana [fruit - food]
Miner�s Lettuce - Claytonia parviflora [foliage - food]
Tarweed - Madia sp. [seeds - food]
White Brodiaea - Triteleia hyacinthina [bulbs - food]
Yampah - Perideridia oregana [roots - food]
Biscuitroot - Lomatium utriculatum [roots - food]
Gooseberry - Ribes sp. [fruit - food]
Harvest Brodiaea - Brodiaea coronaria [bulbs - food]
Non-economic Plants
Small-headed Clover - Trifolium microcephalum [food?]
Clover - Trifolium willdenovii [food?]
Yarrow - Achillea millefolium [foliage - medicine]
Mock Orange - Philadelphus lewisii [wood - arrows]
Clarkia amoena ssp. huntiana
Clarkia sp.
Small-flowered Lotus - Lotus micranthus
Wild Buckwheat - Eriogonum compositum
Bluefield Gila - Gila capitata ssp. capitata
Bedstraw - Galium aparine
Yellow Owl�s Clover - Orthocarpus luteus
Tarweed - Madia minima
Yellow Monkeyflower - Mimulus guttatus
Deerbrush - Ceanothus integerrimus [seeds - starvation food]
Thistle - Cirsium sp.
Lactuca saligna [non-native]
Juncus sp.
Sedum sp.
Trees
Incense Cedar - Calocedrus decurrens
Douglas Fir - Pseudotsuga menziesii
Madrone - Arbutus menziesii [starvation food]
Ponderosa Pine - Pinus ponderosa [seeds -food]

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MEADOW #5

Economic Plants
Dogbane - Apocynum androsaemifolium [stems - fiber]
Pussy Ears - Calochortus tolmiei [bulbs - food]
Ookow - Dichlostemma congestum [bulbs - food]
Tarweed - Madia sp. [seeds - food]
Milkweed - Asclepias cordifolia [stems - fiber]
Gooseberry - Ribes sp. [fruit - food]
Onion - Allium amplectens [bulbs - food]
Western Starflower - Trientalis latifolia [roots - food]
Serviceberry - Amelanchier alnifolia [fruit - food]
Biscuitroot - Lomatium utriculatum [roots - food]
Yampah - Perideridia oregana [roots - food]
Non-Economic Plants
Small-headed Clover - Trifolium microcephalum [food?]
Clover - Trifolium willdenovii [food?]
Yarrow - Achillea millefolium [foliage - medicine]
Mock Orange - Philadelphus lewisii [wood - arrows]
Small-flowered Lotus - Lotus micranthus
Tarweed - Madia minima
Oregon Sunshine - Eriophyllum lanatum
Poison Oak - Toxicodendron diversilobum
Bluefield Gila - Gila capitata ssp. capitata
Clarkia spp.
Juncus sp.
Sword Fern - Polystichum lonchitis [starvation food]
Wild Buckwheat - Eriogonum compositum
Deerbrush - Ceanothus integerrimus [seeds - starvation food]
Byroria sp.
Yellow Monkeyflower - Mimulus guttatus
Indian�s Dream Fern - Aspidotis densa
Twisted Stalk - Streptopus amplexifolius

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MEADOW #6

Tall Oregon Grape - Berberis nervosa
Dogbane - Apocynum androsaemifolium
Sword Fern - Polystichum lonchitis
Bracken Fern - Pteridium aquilinum
Douglas Fir - Pseudotsuga menziesii
Incense Cedar - Calocedrus decurrens
Madrone - Arbutus menziesii
Iris chrysophylla
Ookow - Dichlostemma congestum
Small-flowered Lotus - Lotus micranthus
Pussy Ears - Calochortus tolmiei

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MEADOW #7

Douglas Fir - Pseudotsuga menziesii
Incense Cedar - Calocedrus decurrens
Sugar Pine - Pinus lambertiana
Wild Strawberry - Fragaria virginiana
Western Starflower - Trientalis latifolia
Vetch - Vicea sp.
Pussy Ears - Calochortus tolmiei
Tarweed - Madia minima
Iris chrysophylla
Oceanspray - Holodiscus discolor
Small-flowered Lotus - Lotus micranthus
Dogbane - Apocynum androsaemifolium

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MEADOW #8

Pussy Ears - Calochortus tolmiei
Baldhip Rose - Rosa gymnocarpa
Vetch - Vicea sp.
Dogbane - Apocynum androsaemifolium
Lupinus sp.
Western Starflower - Trientalis latifolia
Viola sp.
Tall Oregon Grape - Berberis nervosa
Bracken Fern - Pteridium aquifolium
Oceanspray - Holodiscus discolor
False Solomon�s Seal - Smilacina racemosa
Snowberry - Symphoricarpos alba
Blackcap Raspberry - Rubus leucodermis
Anemone deltoidea

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MEADOW #9

Tarweed - Madia sp.
Sedum sp.
Pussy Ears - Calochortus tolmiei
Ookow - Dichlostemma congestum
Yellow Monkeyflower - Mimulus guttatus
Clover - Trifolium willdenovii
Wild Strawberry - Fragaria virginiana
Biscuitroot - Lomatium utriculatum
Deerbrush - Ceanothus integerrimus
Yellow Owl�s Clover - Orthocarpus luteus
Dogbane - Apocynum androsaemifolium
Oregon Grape - Berberis aquifolium
Yarrow - Achillea millefolium
Clarkia sp.
Thistle - Cirsium sp.
Klamath Weed - Hypericum perforatum
Small-flowered Lotus - Lotus micranthus
Vetch - Vicea sp.
Poison Oak - Toxicodendron diversilobum
Douglas Fir - Pseudotsuga menziesii
Incense Cedar - Calocedrus decurrens
Grand Fir - Abies grandis

Note -   The plants are listed in no particular order except where divided into economic and non-economic plants.   Scientific Names are partially derived from The Jepson Manual (1993).

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PLEASE REFERENCE:   Gleason, Susan     "Ethnobotanical Survey of Forest Openings within the Proposed Grassy Glade Prescribed Burn Area, Rigdon Ranger District, Willamette National Forest."   Unpublished Report submitted to USDA Forest Service.   Contract No. 98-HTG-39.   Text available on-line at "www.obsidiandesigns.com/glassyglade.html"

If you wish a text version of this page, please e-mail   Drarizona@obsidiandesigns.com   and be sure to note what format you wish it in  ($2.00 will be charged for a mailed print copy).

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